Thursday, 17 February 2011

Norman's engineering room.

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This post is a theoretical look at the modern aeronautical standards and practices for our developing world's atmospheric data and how we utilise the knowledge towards space vehicle design. Materials will be a serious factor and probably combined with personnel for safe travelling, obviously the acquisition of the material will be a useful lesson in the development of mankind, and when I am saying mankind I'm talking the way we obtain the materials...



THE WHITE HOUSE [PRESS RELEASE 16TH FEBRUARY 2011]



Good afternoon,

Just a few weeks ago, in my State of the Union Address, I spoke about how America can win the future by out-educating, out-innovating and out-building the rest of the world. I also talked about taking responsibility for our Nation's deficits, because we can’t win the future if we pass on a mountain of debt to our children and grandchildren.
Yesterday, I sent my budget proposal for 2012 to Congress, and I wanted to take a moment to explain some of the tough choices we had to make so we can afford to invest in our future.
Like American families, the Federal Government must live within its means. That means eliminating wasteful spending and cutting programs that aren't working. It also means that programs, like Community Development Block Grants, which I care about deeply, need to be scaled back to confront the crushing debt we face.
You can learn more about the budget proposal and watch Jack Lew, the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, explain our approach here:

Getting our fiscal house in order requires shared sacrifice. But even in these tough times, we have a responsibility to make smart investments in our Nation's future.
That's why we must invest in innovation to ensure that the jobs and industries of the future are built right here in America. It's why we need to invest in roads, bridges, high-speed rail and high-speed Internet to help our businesses ship their goods and ideas around the world.
And it's why America must invest in education so that all of our children have an opportunity to fulfill their potential. Even though parents are the key to a child's education, we have a responsibility to ensure that America's students are prepared to compete and thrive in the 21st century global economy.
Yesterday, I visited Parkville Middle School and Center of Technology near Baltimore, Maryland. At Parkville, students gain a strong background in math, science and critical thinking skills that they will need to compete for the jobs of the 21st century. In fact, the most popular subject in their magnet program is engineering.
Investing in schools like Parkville, investing in quality teachers, investing in higher education – these are down payments on our children's and our country's future.
Here are just a few investments in education that I've proposed in the budget I sent to Congress:
Preparing 100,000 new math, science and engineering teachers.
Expanding Race to the Top, a reform program that has led more than 40 states to raise their standards for teaching and learning for less than 1 percent of what we spend on education each year.
Helping more kids afford college by making the American Opportunity Tax Credit permanent and strengthening Pell Grants for 9 million students.
Here in Washington, we have to take a cue from millions of American families who have been tightening their belts while continuing to invest in their future. And that's exactly what my budget proposal does – it puts us on a path to live within our means so we can invest in our future.

Sincerely,

President Barack Obama


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Common sense is really what people want during their life, you know... just some decent honesty, a person talking things that we genuinely listen to with results providing moral substance leading to fibre, our communities are becoming more and more educated to resources that seem to be ebbing to places that do not account for the term which was named 'globalisation', even the common person acknowledges that serious discrepancies exist with community tax monies regarding community acquisition.


It is really those dynamics that seek us out in the terminology phase life, what we have, what we will have, and what we actually work towards.

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The 'New' Kilogram Is Approaching

(Feb. 10, 2011) — A milestone in the international Avogadro project coordinated by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) has been reached: With the aid of a single crystal of highly enriched 28Si, the Avogadro constant has now been measured as exactly as never before with a relative overall uncertainty of 3 · 10-8. Within the scope of the redefinition of the kilogram, the value NA = 6.02214078(18) · 1023 mol-1 permits the currently most exact realization of this unit. The results have been published in the most recent edition of the journal Physical Review Letters.

The crucial phase of the long-term Avogadro project -- which is coordinated by PTB -- started in 2003: In that year, several national metrology institutes launched -- together with the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) and in cooperation with Russian research institutes -- the ambitious project of having approximately 5 kg of highly enriched 28Si (99.99 %) be manufactured as a single crystal, of measuring the Avogadro constant with it and of achieving -- by the year 2010 -- a measurement uncertainty of approx. 2 · 10-8. Meanwhile, the first measurements have been completed on the two 1 kg spheres of 28Si -- which had been polished in Australia -- and their density, lattice parameter and surface quality have been determined.
The single steps: After an extensive check of the crystal perfection, the influence of the crystal lattice defects was assessed. Then, the lattice parameter was determined at the Italian metrology institute (INRIM) by means of an X-ray interferometer, and confirmed by comparison measurements with a natural Si crystal at the American NIST. At BIPM, NMIJ (Japan) and PTB, the masses of the two silicon spheres were linked up in vacuum to the international mass standards. In the respective Working Groups of NMIJ, NMI-A (Australia) and PTB, the sphere volume was measured optically -- with excellent agreement -- by means of interferometers with different beam geometries. The surface layer (basically composed of silicon dioxide) was spectroscopied with electron radiation, X-ray radiation and synchrotron radiation in accordance with different procedures, analyzed and taken into account for the determination of the silicon density. The unexpectedly high metallic contamination of the sphere surfaces with copper and nickel silicides which occurred during the polishing process was measured, and its influence on the results of the sphere volume and of the sphere mass was assessed. This resulted in a higher measurement uncertainty.
What was decisive for the success achieved -- i.e. a relative overall measurement uncertainty of 3 · 10-8 -- was the development of a new mass-spectrometric method for the determination of the molar mass at PTB.
The result is a milestone on the way towards a successful realization of the new kilogram definition on the basis of fundamental constants whose values have been fixed. At present, the agreement of this value with other realizations of the kilogram is not good enough to change the existing definition of the mass unit. The present state of the Avogadro project is, however, so promising that -- on the basis of new measurements with improved sphere interferometers -- the measurement uncertainty of 2 · 10-8 demanded by the Consultative Committee for the Mass (CCM) will in the near future be achieved on contamination-free spheres and will probably even be undercut.

Ever wonder why a woman feels happier when she get's a new handbag? No, I didn't want a new handbag, I personally will vouch that I will not pay £300 pounds for a new woman's handbag with every friday's pay packet, perhaps every once per month, I think that a woman should be a space woman, you know what I mean gentlemen, I mean, what is £300 quid in space... Lol...

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http://edocket.access.gpo.gov/2011/pdf/2010-33347.pdf



''The combination of friction loads,

inertia loads, brake torque loads, air

loads, and gyroscopic loads resulting

from the wheels rotating at a peripheral

speed equal to 1.23 VSR (with the wingflaps

in takeoff position at design takeoff

weight), occurring during retraction and

extension at any airspeed up to 1.5 VSR1

(with the wing-flaps in the approach

position at design landing weight), and

(iii) Any load factor up to those

specified in § 25.345(a) for the wingflaps

extended condition''.



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Mike Gilbert Named AIAA National Engineer of the Year
03.19.10


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Energy was there from the beginning. You don't get to build a rocket often, even in NASA, and Mike Gilbert was excited about it.


Click to enlarge
Mike Gilbert at his desk.
Credit: NASA/Sean Smith
Energy was there at the end, when Max Launch Abort System flew from Wallops Island last July 8 with Gilbert in the control room.

Possibilities are still being considered for uses of the MLAS data collected that day. Its impact could end up outside NASA, given the shift toward commercial space launch capabilities now encouraged by the agency.

"With NESC here at Langley, and others at the center who understand escape systems, we feel like Langley might be able to leverage that to help the commercial folks figure out how to do an escape system that works for them," said Gilbert, whose performance as chief engineer for the MLAS project has been rewarded by his being named American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) National Engineer of the Year Award.

In the 103 weeks between planning and July 8 launch of MLAS, energy came from everywhere. Particularly, it came from young engineers called "residents" who were brought to the MLAS program as apprentices and given important work on the project.

"The resident engineers had a lot of energy," said Gilbert. "They really wanted to 'go do,' and sometimes steering them a little bit was really important."

The resident engineers, drawn from six NASA centers, had 5-10 years of experience each. With MLAS, they were tasked with building the vehicle's data instrumentation system.
The launch and flight of the Max Launch Abort System.




"They made a very significant contribution to this activity," Gilbert said. "They had to go from design to procurement to bench tests, integration to checkout to getting the flight data post-processed and boiled down to the engineering data that we were interested in seeing."

Perhaps as important, they set an example.

"Their energy infected the whole project," Gilbert said. "It helped keep some of the senior engineers who have been around for a while motivated to keep up. Sometimes the residents got out ahead of us."

The young engineers presented an interesting balance to a project that had them at one end of the experience continuum and veterans of the Apollo program at the other. In between were engineers from the NASA Engineering and Safety Center.

"I've never seen a project or been involved with a project that had that level of variation in experience and age and maturity," Gilbert said. "Everybody benefited from it, really."

The Apollo veterans asked questions stemming from history, the resident engineers asked questions stemming from inexperience. The NESC engineers had to hustle to answer the questions.

Gilbert's job was to "focus on the engineering aspects of the technical issue that was facing us," he said. "We had two great project managers in Ralph (Roe, NESC head) and Tim (Wilson, NESC deputy) to work the management issues."

Gilbert concentrated on questions such as what kind of design would get the required results? What were those desired results? What was the risk? How do you manage that risk?

His job also was to see that systems throughout the rocket were integrated, "making sure that something that was done in one area wasn't going to mess up something done in another area," Gilbert said.

As MLAS went together, there were inevitable problems. One kept Gilbert on the road for more than a month and required reintegration of much of MLAS.

"Another thing in my job as the chief engineer, and in the end it was the biggest thing, and that was to troubleshoot technical issues as they came up," said Gilbert. "It was to get the test vehicle built correctly.

Along the way there was an "eyes on the prize" mentality. Many NASA projects are so long term that people who start them aren't around to finish them.

MLAS was different. That was both its difficulty and its reward.

"Those opportunities are infrequent, but being there at the start of the planning and working it all the way through to the flight test and then working out the post-flight data analysis was very rewarding," Gilbert said. "You live for those kinds of experiences."

Before dawn on July 8, in the control room at Wallops Island, Gilbert and Wilson chatted, seemingly calm. There had been rehearsal after rehearsal and what was left was up to MLAS.

At launch, the calm went away and telemetrics ticked off benchmarks of the flight. "We cheered," Gilbert said. "Then a couple of seconds later, we cheered again ... and then again five seconds later."

And on it went through the 57-second flight. A perfect ending to 103 weeks of work.

Nine parachutes that brought MLAS down and into the Atlantic Ocean, triggered by 16 pyrotechnic events, signaled the success in a spectacular way.

"That the vehicle flew as we predicted and intended is probably the biggest success," Gilbert said. "It went in the direction we pointed it, went as high as we wanted it to, a little higher, actually, but well within the bounds of what we expected the vehicle to do."




Jim Hodges
The Researcher News
NASA Langley Research Center



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My reservations about latter 20th century engineering principles probably tell of my desire to build multi dimensional travelling space vehicles, these principles that I am showing I have been working on for nearly nine years, I call it F.A.T technology which is ''frequency alignment technology''. The fundamentals of the engineering practice were originally base string theory mathematics that I practice as a hobby. Flow destination will be the module for the next, perhaps 1000 years, I believe this is the best way to approach perimeter exploration and designation mapping.

At previous postings I have spoken about the necessity to evaluate the strengths of materials for building space vehicles, this is some of the theory...
Energy gathering pressure acts and reacts according to element base, element structure really is the fundamental principle of F.A.T technology for it to work in multi environments across multi dimensions, as is shown previously gas emittance from cows gives a pascal reading stability to a multi frame aero spacial, as sound disappears in an envelope the folding of space time become apparent with frequency alignment techniques based upon the age and structure of the mass.


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Previously I have spoken about the need for the American government to spend significantly on the 'magnetic beaming' for engine maneuvering primarily because I believe it is the next logical step in the evolution of engineering for our race travel vehicles, Chinese have shown a public audience that the principles are very probable employers of engineering ability for space vehicles. It would be terrific if NASA direction became stability of magnetic beaming era technology. I though still pursue my space ship that I have been envisioning and building since I was crawling around my bedroom.

The frequency alignment technology is mapping stepping stone phenomenon.


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Alignment of energy measurements of mass present multi directional time travel.


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The medical exploration results certainly show the potential.


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How Much Dark Matter Do Some Galaxies Need? 300 Billion Suns

16th february 2011



Creating stars is a lot like cooking: You need the right ingredients in the proper proportions to make everything shine. One of those ingredients is dark matter, and a new study has pinpointed the lower limit of this elusive substance needed to ignite a frenzy of star formation: a mass equal to 300 billion of our suns.
Dark matter is an invisible substance that astronomers can measure only indirectly by its gravitational influence over regular, visible matter. But while it has yet to be directly observed, it's a vital ingredient for galaxies in the act of forming stars.
And if 300 billion solar masses' worth of dark matter sounds like a lot to start with, scientists say it is actually about 10 times less than the amount previously estimated.



"If you start with too little dark matter, then a developing galaxy would peter out," said the study's leader, Asantha Cooray of the University of California, Irvine, in a statement. "If you have too much, then gas doesn't cool efficiently to form one large galaxy, and you end up with lots of smaller galaxies. But if you have the just the right amount of dark matter, then a galaxy bursting with stars will pop out."
The findings require a re-examination of current galaxy formation and evolution models, researchers said. Astronomers previously thought galaxies needed around 5,000 solar masses' worth of dark matter to kick-start star formation.



Cooray and his colleagues used the European Space Agency's infrared Herschel Space Observatory to measure the amount of dark matter needed for the birth of some of the first galaxies in the universe.
They measured light from massive, rapid-star-creating galaxies around 10 to 11 billion light-years from Earth, galaxies that astronomers suspect had formed inside egg-like halos of dark matter.
Galaxy characteristics like brightness and stellar mass are directly related to the size of their dark matter halo, the researchers said.
"Star formation is closely connected to dark matter," Cooray told SPACE.com.
The scientists studied a patch of sky the size of Earth's moon in the constellation Ursa Major to make their discovery.
This wedge of sky, known as the Lockman Hole, is ideal for studying objects outside our galaxy because of the low dust contamination from the Milky Way.
The study's findings are detailed in today's (Feb. 16) online edition of the journal Nature and will appear in print Feb. 24.
Active galaxies show the way
Star formation is especially high within so-called submillimeter galaxies, which are some of the most active stellar cradles in the 13.7-billion-year-old universe. (The galaxies get their name from the emissions we detect from them as they rapidly move away from Earth. The wavelength of the emissions is less than a millimeter long.) In these old, bright galaxies, new stars are created at the rate of up to a few thousand per year. By comparison, the Milky Way produces about 10 stars annually.
"These are the galaxies that formed when the universe was about 2 or 3 billion years old," Cooray said.
After measuring the brightness of the galaxies within the patch of sky, the researcher calculated the minimum dark halo mass needed to develop and sustain a submillimeter galaxy when the universe's star formation was at its peak.
That number, 300 billion solar masses, is substantially less than previous estimates.
"There could be many reasons for this," Cooray said. For example, "it could be that there are more galaxies in the universe actively undergoing star formation than assumed by current simulations."
Or it could be something else entirely.
Whatever the cause, the link between halo mass and star formation will require another look at current theoretical models for these ancient star-forming galaxies, as well as galaxy formation and evolution as a whole, researchers said.



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Hydrogels Used to Make Precise New Sensor


(Feb. 9, 2011) — Researchers are developing a new type of biological and chemical sensor that has few moving parts, is low-cost and yet highly sensitive, sturdy and long-lasting.

The "diffraction-based" sensors are made of thin stripes of a gelatinous material called a hydrogel, which expands and contracts depending on the acidity of its environment.
Recent research findings have demonstrated that the sensor can be used to precisely determine pH -- a measure of how acidic or basic a liquid is -- revealing information about substances in liquid environments, said Cagri Savran (pronounced Chary Savran), an associate professor of mechanical engineering at Purdue University.
The sensor's simple design could make it more practical than other sensors in development, he said.
"Many sensors being developed today are brilliantly designed but are too expensive to produce, require highly skilled operators and are not robust enough to be practical," said Savran, whose work is based at Purdue's Birck Nanotechnology Center in the university's Discovery Park.
New findings show the technology is highly sensitive and might be used in chemical and biological applications including environmental monitoring in waterways and glucose monitoring in blood.
"As with any novel platform, more development is needed, but the detection principle behind this technology is so simple that it wouldn't be difficult to commercialize," said Savran, who is collaborating with another team of researchers led by Babak Ziaie, a Purdue professor of electrical and computer engineering and biomedical engineering.
Findings are detailed in a paper presented during the IEEE Sensors 2010 Conference in November and also published in the conference proceedings. The paper was written by postdoctoral researcher Chun-Li Chang, doctoral student Zhenwen Ding, Ziaie and Savran.
The flexible, water-insoluble hydrogel is formed into a series of raised stripes called a "diffraction grating," which is coated with gold on both the stripe surfaces and the spaces in between. The stripes expand and contract depending on the pH level of the environment.
Researchers in Ziaie's lab fabricated the hydrogel, while Savran's group led work in the design, development and testing of the diffraction-based sensor.
The sensors work by analyzing laser light reflecting off the gold coatings. Reflections from the stripes and spaces in between interfere with each other, creating a "diffraction pattern" that differs depending on the height of the stripes.
These diffraction patterns indicate minute changes in the movement of the hydrogel stripes in response to the environment, in effect measuring changes in pH.
"By precise measurement of pH, the diffraction patterns can reveal a lot of information about the sample environment," said Savran, who by courtesy is an associate professor of biomedical engineering and electrical and computer engineering. "This technology detects very small changes in the swelling of the diffraction grating, which makes them very sensitive."
The pH of a liquid is recorded on a scale from 0 to 14, with 0 being the most acidic and 14 the most basic. Findings showed the device's high sensitivity enables it to resolve changes smaller than one-1,000th on the pH scale, measuring swelling of only a few nanometers. A nanometer is about 50,000 times smaller than the finest sand grain.
"We know we can make them even more sensitive," Savran said. "By using different hydrogels, gratings responsive to stimuli other than pH can also be fabricated."
The work is ongoing.
"It's a good example of collaborations that can blossom when labs focusing on different research are located next to each other," Savran said. "Professor Ziaie's lab was already working with hydrogels, and my group was working on diffraction-based sensors. Hearing about the hydrogels work next door, one of my postdoctoral researchers, Chun-Li Chang thought of making a reflective diffraction grating out of hydrogels."
The Office of Technology Commercialization of the Purdue Research Foundation has filed for U.S. patent protection on the concept.



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Atom-Thick Sheets Unlock Future Technologies

(Feb. 8, 2011) — A new way of splitting layered materials, similar to graphite, into sheets of material just one atom thick could lead to revolutionary new electronic and energy storage technologies.

An international team, led by Oxford University and Trinity College Dublin scientists, has invented a versatile method for creating these one-atom thick 'nanosheets' from a range of materials using mild ultrasonic pulses, like those generated by jewellery cleaning devices, and common solvents. The new method is simple, fast, and inexpensive, and could be scaled up to work on an industrial scale.
The team publish a report of the research in this week's Science.
Each one-millimetre-thick layer of graphite is made up of around three million layers of graphene -- a flat sheet of carbon one atom thick -- stacked one on top of the other.
'Because of its extraordinary electronic properties graphene has been getting all the attention, including a recent Nobel Prize, as physicists hope that it might, one day, compete with silicon in electronics,' said Dr Valeria Nicolosi of Oxford University's Department of Materials, who led the research with Professor Jonathan Coleman of Trinity College Dublin. 'But in fact there are hundreds of other layered materials that could enable us to create powerful new technologies.'
Professor Coleman, of Trinity College Dublin, said: 'These novel materials have chemical and electronic properties which are well suited for applications in new electronic devices, super-strong composite materials and energy generation and storage. In particular, this research represents a major breakthrough towards the development of efficient thermoelectric materials.'
There are over 150 of these exotic layered materials -- such as Boron Nitride, Molybdenum disulfide, and Tungsten disulfide -- that have the potential to be metallic, semi-metallic or semiconducting depending on their chemical composition and how their atoms are arranged.
For decades researchers have tried to create nanosheets of these kind of materials as arranging them in atom-thick layers would enable us to unlock their unusual electronic and thermoelectric properties. However, all previous methods were extremely time consuming and laborious and the resulting materials were fragile and unsuited to most applications.
'Our new method offers low-costs, a very high yield and a very large throughput: within a couple of hours, and with just 1 mg of material, billions and billions of one-atom-thick graphene-like nanosheets can be made at the same time from a wide variety of exotic layered materials,' said Dr Nicolosi.
Nanosheets created using this method can be sprayed onto the surface of other materials, such as silicon, to produce 'hybrid films' which, potentially, enable their exotic abilities to be integrated with conventional technologies. Such films could be used to construct, among other things, new designs of computing devices, sensors or batteries.
The work was conducted by a team including scientists from Oxford University, Trinity College Dublin, Imperial College London, Korea University, and Texas A&M University (USA).


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Behavioral Problems Linked to Cortisol Levels: Study Finds Intervention Needed as Soon as Behavioral Problems Appear

(Feb. 10, 2011) — Cortisol, the so-called stress hormone, seems to behave in contradictory ways in children. Some youngsters with behavioral problems have abnormally high levels of cortisol, while others with identical problems have abnormally low levels. What's going on?

Researchers at Concordia University and the Centre for Research in Human Development may have resolved the cortisol paradox. In a groundbreaking study published in the journal Hormones and Behavior, they link cortisol levels not simply to behavior problems, but to the length of time individuals have experienced behavior problems.
"We studied the relationship between cortisol levels in young people with problematic behaviour such as aggression or depression, and the length of time since the onset of these behaviours," explains Paula Ruttle, lead author and PhD candidate at Concordia's Department of Psychology. "Cortisol levels were abnormally high around the time problem behaviours began, but abnormally low when they had been present for a long time."
To obtain subjects' cortisol levels, researchers analyzed saliva samples taken from 96 young people during early adolescence. They then matched cortisol levels to behavioral assessments taken in childhood and again during adolescence. Problem behaviours were classified as either "internalizing" (depression and anxiety) or "externalizing" (aggression, attentional problems).
Riding the cortisol roller coaster
Youngsters who developed depression-like symptoms or anxiety problems in adolescence had high levels of cortisol. However, those who developed symptoms earlier had abnormally low cortisol levels. The conclusion? Cortisol levels go up when individuals are first stressed by depression or anxiety, but then decline again if they experience stress for an extended period.
"It seems the body adapts to long-term stress, such as depression, by blunting its normal response," says coauthor Lisa Serbin, a psychology professor who is Ruttle's PhD supervisor and Concordia University Research Chair in Human Development.
"To take an extreme example, if someone sees a bear in the yard, that person experiences a 'flight or fight' reaction," continues Serbin, a member of the Centre for Research in Human Development. "Stress levels and therefore cortisol levels go up. However, if the same person sees bears in the yard every day for a year, the stress response is blunted. Eventually, cortisol levels become abnormally low."
Aggressive behavior in early childhood
At first glance, study results from children with aggressive behavior and attentional problems seem to contradict this theory. In this group they found that low levels of cortisol were related to aggressive behavior both during childhood and adolescence. However, the authors contend that since aggressive behavior often begins in the second year of life or earlier, subjects may have been stressed for years before entering the study, resulting in abnormally low cortisol levels.
"This blunted response makes sense from a physiological point of view," says Ruttle. "In the short term, high levels of cortisol help the body respond to stress. However, in the long term, excessive levels of cortisol are linked to a range of physical and mental health problems. So, to protect itself, the body shuts down the cortisol system -- but research shows that's not good either."
What, me worry?
Individuals with a blunted response to stress may not respond to things that would -- and should -- make other people nervous. For example, children with long-term behaviour problems perform poorly in school. Because of their blunted stress response, these youngsters may not be worried about exams, so they don't bother to prepare as much as their peers.
The study has many significant implications, according to Serbin. "This research suggests interventions should begin as soon as a behavioural problem appears," she says. "For children with severe externalizing problems, this may be very early, perhaps even when they are preschoolers or toddlers.
"We now have evidence that behavioural problems in children are linked to mental and physical health. Taking a 'wait-and-see' attitude may not be the right approach."
This research was funded by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research.



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I'm not going to give materials or stats on this journal, some of my friends have some of the stats that I've looked at for different constellations, so, I guess we''ll keep doing the sums while getting the funding...




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