Monday, 28 December 2015

Happy Christmas happy new year... 2015/2016

The voyage for a better quality requires learning...

Happy Christmas...

Monday, 26 October 2015

Allah and salvation is arriving...

Just adding a good spacetravel picture...

NASA ponders airship city above Venus

Planet closest to Earth has dangerous, sulphurous atmosphere

CBC News Posted: Dec 23, 2014 12:39 PM ET Last Updated: Dec 23, 2014 12:39 PM ET
NASA scientists imagine sending astronauts to study Venus by floating them above the planet where the atmosphere is similar to that of Earth's.
NASA scientists imagine sending astronauts to study Venus by floating them above the planet where the atmosphere is similar to that of Earth's. (NASA)
NASA is floating the idea of a permanent human city above the surface of Venus using blimps so astronauts can study one of the most hostile environments in the solar system.
Called HAVOC – High Altitude Venus Operational Concept — engineers and scientists at the space agency have been studying ways in which a Venus mission would be possible.
“The atmosphere of Venus is an exciting destination for both further scientific study and future human exploration,” aerospace engineer Christopher A. Jones told CNN.
Venus is the closest planet to Earth, about 38 million kilometres, compared with 54.6 million km to Mars. However, it is also highly inhospitable with a mean temperature of 462 degrees Celsius, a cloud layer of sulphuric acid and atmospheric pressure that’s 92 times greater than Earth’s.
Scientists say, however, that just 50 kilometres above the cloud layer are conditions that mimic Earth – pressure is almost the same and so is the gravity and the temperature is about 75 C. With current technology, the astronauts could be outfitted in special suits to withstand the heat.
In previous years, probes have been sent to the surface of Venus, but could only last about two hours.
A short mission to Venus would last 30 days, according to NASA researchers. However, they do envision a longer stay in which there could be a permanent human presence above Venus.
The study proposes a kind of "aeroshell" that would send the astronauts to the planet. During the deceleration, a parachute would deploy, with the aeroshell falling away, to unveil an airship.
In order to study the surface, the astronauts should head outside in a giant open metal basket suspended beneath the airships.
While the actualization of the concept is decades away, NASA scientists say they do hope it comes to fruition.
“[It] would allow us to gain experience having humans live in another world,” said Jones.

The thing about working with the soft and gentle truths is that the cities were worth working for...

For him...

British airways is not british anymore...

For me...  ???


Better get some work done...

The misses'l be home soon...

Her job's ready when she is...

Hopes @MsDixon for vote for blonde Muslims in America...

Thursday, 22 May 2014

Astro Architecture.

Astro Architecture...
A company with solve science ethic.

Saturday, 26 February 2011

Me so horny, me loa you long time...

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This post is about personnel, no, serious, team work personnel, man oh man It's difficult to get the proper personnel, ok, so, this business is a business that people enjoy, it's an outlet as well as a hobby pursuit, the thing is though you know when people have listened to someone talking about a subject and thought that sounds like they really like it and then they go and get their luck tested and get a job... But, do they really want the job...

Paris / I choose you

Planet could be 'unrecognizable' by 2050, experts say

AFP/NASA/GSFC/NOAA – Undated image of Earth's city lights released by NASA. A growing, more affluent population competing …
– Sun Feb 20, 3:05 pm ET
WASHINGTON (AFP) – A growing, more affluent population competing for ever scarcer resources could make for an "unrecognizable" world by 2050, researchers warned at a major US science conference Sunday.
The United Nations has predicted the global population will reach seven billion this year, and climb to nine billion by 2050, "with almost all of the growth occurring in poor countries, particularly Africa and South Asia," said John Bongaarts of the non-profit Population Council.
To feed all those mouths, "we will need to produce as much food in the next 40 years as we have in the last 8,000," said Jason Clay of the World Wildlife Fund at the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS).
"By 2050 we will not have a planet left that is recognizable" if current trends continue, Clay said.
The swelling population will exacerbate problems, such as resource depletion, said John Casterline, director of the Initiative in Population Research at Ohio State University.
But incomes are also expected to rise over the next 40 years -- tripling globally and quintupling in developing nations -- and add more strain to global food supplies.
People tend to move up the food chain as their incomes rise, consuming more meat than they might have when they made less money, the experts said.
It takes around seven pounds (3.4 kilograms) of grain to produce a pound of meat, and around three to four pounds of grain to produce a pound of cheese or eggs, experts told AFP.
"More people, more money, more consumption, but the same planet," Clay told AFP, urging scientists and governments to start making changes now to how food is produced.
Population experts, meanwhile, called for more funding for family planning programs to help control the growth in the number of humans, especially in developing nations.
"For 20 years, there's been very little investment in family planning, but there's a return of interest now, partly because of the environmental factors like global warming and food prices," said Bongaarts.
"We want to minimize population growth, and the only viable way to do that is through more effective family planning," said Casterline.

Junior Murvin / Police and thieves

I want to say that my love for this planet is acknowledged daily with the fresh wind that brings me contentment.

The Religion of the Koran, by Arthur N. Wollaston, [1911]

p. 57

CHAPTER II., Verse 182.—When my servants ask thee concerning me, then, verily, I am near; I answer the prayer's prayer whene'er he prays to Me. So let them ask Me for an answer, and let them believe in me; haply they may be directed aright.
Chapter IV., Verse 104.—But when ye have fulfilled your prayer, remember God standing and sitting and lying on your sides; and when ye are in safety then be steadfast in prayer; verily, prayer is for the believers prescribed and timed!

Chapter VI., Verse 71.—Say, "Verily, God's guidance is the guidance, and we are bidden to resign ourselves unto the Lord of the worlds, and be ye steadfast in prayer and fear Him, for He it is to whom we shall be gathered."

Chapter XIV., Verse 36.—Say to my servants who believe, that they be steadfast in prayer.

Chapter XVII., Verse 80.—Be thou steadfast in prayer from the declining of the sun until the dusk of the night, and the reading of the dawn; verily, the reading of the dawn is ever testified to.

Chapter XX., Verse 132.—Bid thy people to prayer, and persevere in it; we do not ask thee to
p. 58
provide. We will provide, and the issue shall be to piety.

Chapter XXII., Verse 76.—Be ye then steadfast to prayer, and give alms, and hold fast by God; He is your sovereign, and an excellent sovereign, and an excellent help!

Chapter II., Verse 144.—From whencesoever thou comest forth, there turn thy face towards the sacred mosque, for it is surely truth from thy Lord; God is not careless about what ye do. (145) And from whencesoever thou comest forth, there turn thy face towards the sacred mosque, and wheresoever ye are, turn your faces towards it, that men may have no argument against you, save only those of them who are unjust; and fear them not, but fear Me and I will fulfil my favours to you, perchance ye may be guided yet.

Chapter VII., Verse 29.—O sons of Adam! take your ornaments to every mosque; and eat and drink, but do not be extravagant, for He loves not the extravagant.

Alton Ellis / I'm still in love with you

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Real Partners Are No Match for Ideal Mate, Study Finds

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(Oct. 2, 2010) — Our ideal image of the perfect partner differs greatly from our real-life partner, according to new research from the University of Sheffield and the University of Montpellier in France. The research found that our actual partners are of a different height, weight and body mass index than those we would ideally choose.

The study, which was published the week of 27 September 2010) in the Journal PLoS ONE, found that most men and women express different mating preferences for body morphology than the actual morphology of their partners and the discrepancies between real mates and fantasies were often larger for women than for men.
The study also found that most men would rather have female partners much slimmer than they really have. Most women are not satisfied, either, but contrary to men, while some would like slimmer mates, others prefer bigger ones.
Human mating preferences are increasingly being studied to understand what shapes our complex reproductive behaviour. Whilst previous studies have separately investigated ideal mate choice and actual pairing, this new research was specifically conducted to compare them. The researchers gathered data from one hundred heterosexual couples living in Montpellier, south of France. To measure preferences for body morphology, they used software which allowed the participant to easily modify the body shape of their ideal silhouette on a computer screen. The researchers then compared ideal silhouettes obtained with the actual characteristics of the partners.
For the three morphological traits studied -- height, weight and body mass -- men's mating preferences were less different from their actual partner's characteristics than females' ones. As the authors remark, the lower dissatisfaction observed for men in this study may be restricted to some physical traits, and results could be different for other traits such as personality, political opinion or sense of humor that are also important in partner choice.
Dr Alexandre Courtiol, from the University of Sheffield, who carried out the work with colleagues from the Institut des Sciences de l'Evolution de Montpellier, said: "Whether males or females win the battle of mate choice, it is likely for any trait, what we prefer and what we get, differs quite significantly. This is because our ideals are usually rare or unavailable and also because both sexes express preferences while biological optimum can differ between them."

Curtis Mayfield / So in love

Collective Intelligence: Number of Women in Group Linked to Effectiveness in Solving Difficult Problems

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(Oct. 2, 2010) — When it comes to intelligence, the whole can indeed be greater than the sum of its parts. A new study co-authored by MIT, Carnegie Mellon University, and Union College researchers documents the existence of collective intelligence among groups of people who cooperate well, showing that such intelligence extends beyond the cognitive abilities of the groups' individual members, and that the tendency to cooperate effectively is linked to the number of women in a group.

Many social scientists have long contended that the ability of individuals to fare well on diverse cognitive tasks demonstrates the existence of a measurable level of intelligence in each person. In a study published Sept. 30, in the advance online issue of the journal Science, the researchers applied a similar principle to small teams of people. They discovered that groups featuring the right kind of internal dynamics perform well on a wide range of assignments, a finding with potential applications for businesses and other organizations.
"We set out to test the hypothesis that groups, like individuals, have a consistent ability to perform across different kinds of tasks," says Anita Williams Woolley, the paper's lead author and an assistant professor at Carnegie Mellon's Tepper School of Business. "Our hypothesis was confirmed," continues Thomas W. Malone, a co-author and Patrick J. McGovern Professor of Management at the MIT Sloan School of Management. "We found that there is a general effectiveness, a group collective intelligence, which predicts a group's performance in many situations."
That collective intelligence, the researchers believe, stems from how well the group works together. For instance, groups whose members had higher levels of "social sensitivity" were more collectively intelligent. "Social sensitivity has to do with how well group members perceive each other's emotions," says Christopher Chabris, a co-author and assistant professor of psychology at Union College in New York. "Also, in groups where one person dominated, the group was less collectively intelligent than in groups where the conversational turns were more evenly distributed," adds Woolley. And teams containing more women demonstrated greater social sensitivity and in turn greater collective intelligence compared to teams containing fewer women.
To arrive at their conclusions, the researchers conducted studies at MIT's Center for Collective Intelligence and Carnegie Mellon, in which 699 people were placed in groups of two to five. The groups worked together on tasks that ranged from visual puzzles to negotiations, brainstorming, games and complex rule-based design assignments. The researchers concluded that a group's collective intelligence accounted for about 40 percent of the variation in performance on this wide range of tasks.
Moreover, the researchers found that the performance of groups was not primarily due to the individual abilities of the group's members. For instance, the average and maximum intelligence of individual group members did not significantly predict the performance of their groups overall.
Only when analyzing the data did the co-authors suspect that the number of women in a group had significant predictive power. "We didn't design this study to focus on the gender effect," Malone says. "That was a surprise to us." However, further analysis revealed that the effect seemed to be explained by the higher social sensitivity exhibited by females, on average. "So having group members with higher social sensitivity is better regardless of whether they are male or female," Woolley explains.
Malone believes the study applies to many kinds of organizations. "Imagine if you could give a one-hour test to a top management team or a product development team that would allow you to predict how flexibly that group of people would respond to a wide range of problems that might arise," he says. "That would be a pretty interesting application. We also think it's possible to improve the intelligence of a group by changing the members of a group, teaching them better ways of interacting or giving them better electronic collaboration tools."
Woolley and Malone say they and their co-authors "definitely intend to continue research on this topic," including studies on the ways groups interact online, and they are "considering further studies on the gender question." Still, they believe their research has already identified a general principle indicating how the whole adds up to something more than the sum of its parts. As Woolley explains, "It really calls into question our whole notion of what intelligence is. What individuals can do all by themselves is becoming less important; what matters more is what they can do with others and by using technology."
"Having a bunch of smart people in a group doesn't necessarily make the group smart," concludes Malone.
In addition to Woolley, Malone and Chabris, the other co-authors were Alexander Pentland, the Toshiba Professor of Media Arts & Science at the MIT Media Lab; and Nada Hashmi, a doctoral candidate at MIT Sloan.

George McCrae / Rock your baby

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Me so horny me love you long time.

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Why the Number of Women in IT Is Decreasing
Published: January 15, 2007

At its Fall Symposium last October, Gartner braved an interesting and controversial topic, examining the reports that women are reportedly entering the information technology workforce in fewer and fewer absolute numbers and in fewer numbers than the decrease of women in the workforce in general is showing up in other professions. Why this is happening, and why this is a serious problem that companies need to address?

As a woman who cut her professional teeth in the IT world at the same time that Helen Reddy was singing "I Am Woman, Hear Me Roar," I was immensely interested in Gartner's findings and assertions. I was also skeptical, expecting to read a laundry list of politically correct findings and suggestions. But that presentation, followed by my conversation with Mark Raskino, a Gartner fellow and research vice president who co-authored the report with two female co-workers, was anything but politically correct.

To begin with, I asked Raskino what prompted Gartner to pursue this study. The title of the presentation, "Women and Men in IT: Breaking Through Sexual Stereotypes," is not one I would have expected as part of the research agenda at a major industry research firm. Raskino explains, however, that in Gartner's mainstream research the company traditionally looks at all of the "high probability events," by which Gartner means those issues that have both a high probability and a major impact. Sometimes, however, there are issues bubbling under the surface that are relatively low probability but also have major impact. "There was a lot of internal debate about those issues that we were missing, and this topic came to the foreground because it was a simple juxtaposition of something that many of us had become aware of at the same time."

The raw research numbers presented by Gartner are fairly dramatic. The number of women in IT, as measured as a percentage of the total IT personnel pool, declined from 42 percent in 1996 to 32.4 percent in 2004--with no noticeable progress in the number of women in professional or management ranks.

In the first place, Raskino says, the direction in which corporate IT seems to be moving is one that is more about information and relationships and less about technology. The needed skill sets to accommodate this change in emphasis are those that "you would typically associated with the female population" such as language skills, communication skills, and relationship building.

At the same time, however, Gartner was seeing more and more data from its own research and from the research of others that the number of women in IT is decreasing, and that fewer women are electing computer science programs in college. The research shows, Raskino says, that this is happening the world over. "I'm really struck by the fact that this is global. There was no company that has come back to us and said, 'our country is different.' Even in Sweden, which is an archetype of strong social approaches to equality issues, the numbers of women in IT are declining."

Looking then at the direction of corporate IT as a whole together with the belief that skill sets typically associated with women are increasingly needed by IT, Gartner delved into the topic and reported its findings. Raskino is quick to point out that the company is "not coming at this from the standpoint of right or wrong; that's not what we do at Gartner. What we are saying is that, in the next three to five years in terms of delivering what IT departments are expected to deliver, the gender imbalance is going to put these departments in a really weak position unless they do something about it and address it."

According to Gartner, the business and IT drivers for the 10-year period from 2006 to 2016 will be:

Consumer centricity, emphasizing customer experience, usability, convenience, and productivity.
Global reach, emphasizing coordination of services, competence, and perspectives.
Extended value chains, emphasizing collaboration, alliances, intangibles, and diverse stockholders.
Innovation, emphasizing imagination and execution for products, services, and business. Many of these traits are typically associated more with women than with men.
Gartner suggests that there is a need to break through some of the standard approaches to attracting women to IT and accommodating the needs of women. Raskino suggests that companies need to do some "radical thinking" to address the problem. This radical thinking makes the topic controversial because it requires that employers look at the male and female populations as being different and as having different strengths. "That is difficult because in gender politics, you are supposed to treat everyone as equal."

Psychologists have, by and large, agreed that there are differences between the general characteristics of men and women. Translated into the world of IT, Gartner says, that means women are better at listening with both the left brain and the right brain; this has implications for roles such as business analyst and team leader. Similarly, women are better at a range of language skills and they score better on social skills and understanding the viewpoints of others. Men, on the other hand, tend to be better at complex mental visualization and pattern spotting, which has implications for certain aspects of engineering roles. Men also take more risks and are happier doing so openly--characteristics that make them more suited to innovation and competitiveness.

These generalizations, however, are just that: generalizations. And there is no question that each man and each woman must be treated and assessed individually, since there is a wide variety of traits and personalities. But, generalizations can and are made with some validity. Gartner, then, is saying that companies must break from the notion that men and women are completely equal. This may not be a very popular idea.

Are these differences nature or nurture? Although the psychologists are nearly unanimous on the question of whether or not there are differences between the two sexes, they are less clear on whether these characteristics are genetically hard-wired or a result of our surroundings, cultures, and upbringings. Gartner, wisely, does not get into that debate, choosing instead simply to point out that the differences do exist and need to be acknowledged and dealt with.

At the live presentation in October, Gartner asked the members of its audience whether or not they believed there were significant differences between the capabilities of men and women. Half of the audience said yes, and half said no. "There is something in office politics that wants to say that everybody is the same. We're in controversial territory here," Raskino admits. "But it's important to get into that territory because unless companies realize this now, they won't take the sorts of actions necessary to change the gender balance in IT, and we know that will serve them badly."

He points to things like the increasingly social nature of the Internet, of information management (e.g., the percentage of female librarians to male librarians), and of the importance to companies of building and managing relationships with vendors in the supply chain and at outsourcers, not to mention managing the interactions between IT and the business side, which is becoming more and more pivotal to the success of IT. "Again," Raskino emphasizes, "all of these things point to the need for more 'female characteristics.'"

Why are women seemingly dropping out of the IT world? In some cases, the profession has become viewed as "a boy thing" for computer nerds and geeks (male). This impression causes girls to eliminate consideration of a job in IT as soon as the early teens, which is when, according to Raskino, research shows that many girls are beginning to choose their career paths--or at least eliminate some of the possibilities.

What can be done? How can IT attract more women into its ranks? In the United Kingdom, Raskino reports, government agencies have been encouraging the educational system to build after-school programs--computer clubs for girls on their own, away from boys--to change that perception.

Some women in Australia have put together an organization that promotes "The IT Screen Goddess Initiative" complete with its own Website (Caution: I rate this Website "PG"). The group's major project is the publication of an "IT Goddess" calendar that rivals the swimsuit edition of Sports Illustrated. The stated purpose of the calendar is "to dispel the 'geeky' image of IT and the perception that IT is not a desirable career for women, by providing a life expose of real women with unreal careers--all living and loving IT."

The IT Goddesses are very explicit about their goals:
Smash through the perception of the geeky technologist
Put a spotlight on the industry and increase national interest and awareness in careers in information technology
Raise awareness of the diversity of women in IT
Raise money for non-profit groups that run initiatives to encourage females to take up technology studies and to enter technology careers
Promote organizations and companies involved in and supporting IT through sponsorship/promotional opportunities on each page of the calendar
Raskino calls this Website "a shocker," but points out that this is the extent to which some have gone to promote the acceptability of IT as a career for women. Even if the examples from the UK and Australia given here and others are successful in increasing the interest of young girls in pursuing a profession in IT, it won't solve the problem of the declining numbers of women in IT for several years. More immediately, companies can look to the number of women who left the workforce (many of whom lost jobs during the bust) and take initiatives to draw them back in. The best way to do this, he suggests, is by getting away from the model that everyone needs to be physically present in the office, and build work-from-home programs. "That's one way to pull back the self-excluded work force and find and use people who already have the skills to fill the gaps."

How can companies review and change their strategies to ensure that they have the right skills moving forward? The old model, Raskino points out, called for companies to "get more women into the game" by promoting women, extinguishing stereotypes, changing the culture, using human resources policies to level the playing field, waiting for women to catch up, and trying to get people to change how they think and feel. Instead, companies should "change the game" by educating people and learning the facts, focusing on the six critical competencies for all employees, and rethinking the management perspective. Designing work teams that emphasize group dynamics over leadership centralization is also important. Well-balanced work, mixed-gender teams will give the best results.

Overall, then, Gartner recommends that IT managers need to have the courage to change the game. IT leaders should exploit gender differences--an approach that will deliver better results than trying to change stereotypes. HR leaders should "design practices and policies for the stereotyped world--not for the way you wish it were." And CIOs should design IT teams, work, opportunities, and management/process platforms for a stereotyped world.

Above all, Raskino suggests that "we have to stop being locked into the thinking that we have to have equality in everything. Rather, we need to recognize and exploit those differences and stop pretending that everyone is the same."

Obviously many of you who browse my journal have long time ambitions of travelling in deep space, the worry about fuel types and propulsion techniques is the main obstacle of getting a vehicle that is suitable for deep space travel, a women is a perfect way to describe torque capability in space.

Isley brothers / For the love of you

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Moving around the world with love is an easy thing to do, when it is reciprocated it is something that people could build on, platforms of respect are gathered when people comprehend the situation, and love isn't ever lost when the field is learnt, it becomes a home, a home that grows. With the recent work that I have accomplished I have learnt that when I thought I knew my perimeters, still they largen, I guess that jobs are like rocket paths, and treating them with respect while learning what they result with is something that as a man and for women aswell we are all still learning.

Al Green / How can you mend a broken heart

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How to Ask a Woman for Her Number

Looking for the best way to ask a woman for her number? These tips will help you approach women with confidence, and increase your chances of getting the contact you're dying for.


Don't ask a woman for her number if you can offer her yours.

Modern dating poses a great risk for single women. Many are rightfully concerned for their safety. When you ask a woman for her number, you put her in an uncomfortable situation where she is forced to choose between her security and her interest in getting to know you better. Even if she is interested, she may refuse your request.

Instead, offer her your number and give her a reason to call. Tell her you would love to meet for coffee and encourage her to call you when she has some time. You won't get the instant gratification of an immediate positive or negative response, but you will increase the chances that, eventually, she will be open to phone conversations, and possibly dating.


Sure, practice is a great way to make sure you don't put your foot in your mouth when talking to a woman you'd like to date, but too much preparation can give her the wrong impression. A slick performance tells a woman two things: first, that you do this sort of thing with women all the time, and second, that you're not really interested in her, but in scoring yet another set of digits. It is essential to strike a balance between readiness and spontaneity.

Carry a pen and a scrap of paper with you to either take her number or write your number down for her. Do not have your contact information written down before you even ask a woman for her number. Also, don't pull out a notebook or an address book already filled with numbers. To add to the illusion of 'chance', look around for a napkin or writing utensil in your surroundings. You want her to think you don't make a habit of exchanging numbers with women.


Offer her your email address. Email might annoy you, but it's a comfortable precursor to live conversation for many women. Many women are eager to learn more about a man before committing to a date or even a cup of coffee. A few written exchanges may give the insight into your personality she needs to take the next step.

'How to ask a woman for her number' is not the question. 'How to get her number' is.


Have a reason. This was mentioned in the first step, but is worth repeating. Providing her with a valid reason to contact you will diffuse her anxiety about getting involved with a new man. It will also give you both something to talk about when she reaches out to contact you. The more practical and valid the reason, the more likely she is to call. For instance, if you're offering help with a problem or requesting her assistance a hesitant woman will be more likely to call than if you are simply asking her out for a drink.

Read more: How to Ask a Woman for Her Number

The Stylistics / You make me feel brand new

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Testing the Limits of Where Humans Can Live

(Feb. 21, 2011) — On an isolated segment of islands in the Pacific Ring of Fire, residents endure volcanoes, tsunamis, dense fog, steep cliffs and long and chilly winters.

Sounds homey, huh?
At least it might be for inhabitants of the Kuril Islands, an 810-mile archipelago that stretches from Japan to Russia. The islands, formed by a collision of tectonic plates, are nearly abandoned today, but anthropologists have learned that thousands of people have lived there on and off as far back as at least 6000 B.C., persevering despite natural disasters.
"We want to identify the limits of adaptability, or how much resilience people have," said Ben Fitzhugh, associate professor of anthropology at the University of Washington. "We're looking at the islands as a yardstick of humans' capacity to colonize and sustain themselves."
Understanding what made residents stay and how they survived could inform how we adapt to modern vulnerabilities, including climate change. The findings also have implications for how we rebound from contemporary catastrophes, such as the Indonesian tsunami in 2004, hurricanes Katrina and Rita and last year's earthquake in Haiti.
Fitzhugh is leading an international team of anthropologists, archaeologists, geologists and earth and atmospheric scientists in studying the history of human settlement on the Kuril Islands.
The team's findings will be discussed Feb. 20 during a lecture, Scales of Vulnerability and Resilience in Human Settlement of the Kuril Islands, at the American Association for the Advancement of Science's annual meeting in Washington, D.C.
The scientists are studying islands in the central portion of the Kurils, from Urup Island in the south to Onekotan Island in the north -- about 75 percent of the island chain. During three expeditions, they've found small pit houses, pottery, stone tools, barbed harpoon heads and other remnants of the islanders' fishing and foraging lifestyle.
The scientists believe that human settlements existed in three different waves, the earliest in 6000 B.C., the most recent in 1200 A.D.
Fitzhugh finds evidence that following volcanic eruptions and tsunamis, people left the settlements but eventually returned. Fitzhugh and his research team have found that mobility, social networks and knowledge of the local environment helped indigenous people survive.
"Having relatives and friends on other Kurils meant that, when something disastrous happened locally, people could temporarily move in with relatives on nearby islands," he said.
Understanding the local environment also helped people survive the persistently foggy, dark and chilly environment. Since fog can shroud the islands, residents couldn't navigate between islands by simply pointing their boats toward destinations. Fitzhugh and his collaborators suspect that indigenous Kurilians instead used bird behavior, water currents and water temperature to navigate.
Fitzhugh says that the Kurils' population decline has less to do with environmental challenges and more to do with changes in social and political influences, such as skirmishes between Russia and Japan over control of the Kurils.
He adds that as a global society in a time of environmental changes, we have to protect abilities of small and vulnerable populations to sustain themselves.
"This is not something that will naturally rise to the top of priorities of large political systems without concerted effort," Fitzhugh said.
The work is part of the Kuril Biocomplexity Project, funded by the National Science Foundation and the University of Washington, with additional support from the Russian Academy of Sciences and the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science.

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I'm just a man who wants things right and simple...

Britney Spears / If I hold it against you

You Benefit If Your Romantic Partner Recovers Well from Spats

(Feb. 14, 2011) — People searching for fulfilling and stable romantic relationships should look for a romantic partner who recovers from conflict well. Yes, it turns out that if your romantic partner recoups well after the two of you have a spat, you reap the benefits, according to results of a new study by the University of Minnesota College of Education and Human Development's Institute of Child Development.

The research looks at how people recover or come down after a conflict with their romantic partner, said Jessica Salvatore, the lead researcher in the study "Recovering From Conflict in Romantic Relationships: A Developmental Perspective." The article is set to appear in the journal Psychological Science, and has been released online. Co-authors of the study are university researchers Sally Kuo, Ryan Steele, Jeffry Simpson and W. Andrew Collins.
Salvatore and her colleagues' research digs into a new area. In the past, marriage researchers have focused on how people resolve conflicts, but they never looked at what happens after the conflict ends and how people recover, Salvatore said.
"What we show is that recovering from conflict well predicts higher satisfaction and more favorable relationship perceptions. You perceive the relationship more positively," Salvatore said.
The interesting finding is that you don't have to be the one who recovers well to benefit.
"If I'm good at recovering from conflict, my husband will benefit and be more satisfied with our relationship," Salvatore said.
The study's participants were 73 young adults who have been studied since birth and their romantic partners.
"Several decades of marriage research show that what happens during a conflict matters. What we show is that what happens in the time following a conflict also matters," she said.
A partner who recovers well doesn't let remnants of the conflict spill over or leak into other parts of the relationship, Salvatore said. He or she is able to separate conflict from other types of interactions, such as deciding how to parent their children or providing support to one another.
The study's findings are relevant to everyone in relationships, Salvatore said.
"I especially think this will be important for marital therapists and other people who are working with couples who are experiencing some relationship distress," Salvatore said.
Results of the study also show that infant attachment security plays a role in how someone recovers from conflict.
"Having a caregiver who was more in-tune and responsive to your emotional needs as an infant predicts better conflict recovery 20 years later," Salvatore said. This means that if your caregiver is better at regulating your negative emotions as an infant, you tend to do a better job of regulating your own negative emotions in the moments following a conflict as an adult.
But not all is lost if you were insecurely attached as an infant. "We also show people who were insecurely attached as infants but whose adult romantic partners recover well from conflict are likely to stay together. What this shows is that good partners in adulthood can help make up for difficulties experienced early in life," Salvatore said.

The four tops / Still waters run deep

The central and eastern north African countries need me, they need to know that I am here for them as a male with a lot of respect for them. As a member of our world I salute you and will soon be joining the company of multi cultural promotions for region habitual historical disciplines for the study of eventual interplanetary integration and the evolutionary capabilities of genre adaptives.

William Devaughn / Diamond in the back

That's the end of this blog. I have decided that the training programme is completed and the first orbital is complete. The blog will still be on probably for a while giving you the opportunity to look at the blog and it's earlier postings.

I will be continuing to post my journal at another blog which I am starting, the blog title is 'prerogative mansworld' and essentially is a journal of my life in the business world, world economics and how my hero and idol Marlon Brando helps me become a man.

Obviously I pay homage to my real mum and dad as will obviously be watching...

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Thursday, 17 February 2011

Norman's engineering room.

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This post is a theoretical look at the modern aeronautical standards and practices for our developing world's atmospheric data and how we utilise the knowledge towards space vehicle design. Materials will be a serious factor and probably combined with personnel for safe travelling, obviously the acquisition of the material will be a useful lesson in the development of mankind, and when I am saying mankind I'm talking the way we obtain the materials...


Good afternoon,

Just a few weeks ago, in my State of the Union Address, I spoke about how America can win the future by out-educating, out-innovating and out-building the rest of the world. I also talked about taking responsibility for our Nation's deficits, because we can’t win the future if we pass on a mountain of debt to our children and grandchildren.
Yesterday, I sent my budget proposal for 2012 to Congress, and I wanted to take a moment to explain some of the tough choices we had to make so we can afford to invest in our future.
Like American families, the Federal Government must live within its means. That means eliminating wasteful spending and cutting programs that aren't working. It also means that programs, like Community Development Block Grants, which I care about deeply, need to be scaled back to confront the crushing debt we face.
You can learn more about the budget proposal and watch Jack Lew, the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, explain our approach here:

Getting our fiscal house in order requires shared sacrifice. But even in these tough times, we have a responsibility to make smart investments in our Nation's future.
That's why we must invest in innovation to ensure that the jobs and industries of the future are built right here in America. It's why we need to invest in roads, bridges, high-speed rail and high-speed Internet to help our businesses ship their goods and ideas around the world.
And it's why America must invest in education so that all of our children have an opportunity to fulfill their potential. Even though parents are the key to a child's education, we have a responsibility to ensure that America's students are prepared to compete and thrive in the 21st century global economy.
Yesterday, I visited Parkville Middle School and Center of Technology near Baltimore, Maryland. At Parkville, students gain a strong background in math, science and critical thinking skills that they will need to compete for the jobs of the 21st century. In fact, the most popular subject in their magnet program is engineering.
Investing in schools like Parkville, investing in quality teachers, investing in higher education – these are down payments on our children's and our country's future.
Here are just a few investments in education that I've proposed in the budget I sent to Congress:
Preparing 100,000 new math, science and engineering teachers.
Expanding Race to the Top, a reform program that has led more than 40 states to raise their standards for teaching and learning for less than 1 percent of what we spend on education each year.
Helping more kids afford college by making the American Opportunity Tax Credit permanent and strengthening Pell Grants for 9 million students.
Here in Washington, we have to take a cue from millions of American families who have been tightening their belts while continuing to invest in their future. And that's exactly what my budget proposal does – it puts us on a path to live within our means so we can invest in our future.


President Barack Obama

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Common sense is really what people want during their life, you know... just some decent honesty, a person talking things that we genuinely listen to with results providing moral substance leading to fibre, our communities are becoming more and more educated to resources that seem to be ebbing to places that do not account for the term which was named 'globalisation', even the common person acknowledges that serious discrepancies exist with community tax monies regarding community acquisition.

It is really those dynamics that seek us out in the terminology phase life, what we have, what we will have, and what we actually work towards.

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The 'New' Kilogram Is Approaching

(Feb. 10, 2011) — A milestone in the international Avogadro project coordinated by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) has been reached: With the aid of a single crystal of highly enriched 28Si, the Avogadro constant has now been measured as exactly as never before with a relative overall uncertainty of 3 · 10-8. Within the scope of the redefinition of the kilogram, the value NA = 6.02214078(18) · 1023 mol-1 permits the currently most exact realization of this unit. The results have been published in the most recent edition of the journal Physical Review Letters.

The crucial phase of the long-term Avogadro project -- which is coordinated by PTB -- started in 2003: In that year, several national metrology institutes launched -- together with the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) and in cooperation with Russian research institutes -- the ambitious project of having approximately 5 kg of highly enriched 28Si (99.99 %) be manufactured as a single crystal, of measuring the Avogadro constant with it and of achieving -- by the year 2010 -- a measurement uncertainty of approx. 2 · 10-8. Meanwhile, the first measurements have been completed on the two 1 kg spheres of 28Si -- which had been polished in Australia -- and their density, lattice parameter and surface quality have been determined.
The single steps: After an extensive check of the crystal perfection, the influence of the crystal lattice defects was assessed. Then, the lattice parameter was determined at the Italian metrology institute (INRIM) by means of an X-ray interferometer, and confirmed by comparison measurements with a natural Si crystal at the American NIST. At BIPM, NMIJ (Japan) and PTB, the masses of the two silicon spheres were linked up in vacuum to the international mass standards. In the respective Working Groups of NMIJ, NMI-A (Australia) and PTB, the sphere volume was measured optically -- with excellent agreement -- by means of interferometers with different beam geometries. The surface layer (basically composed of silicon dioxide) was spectroscopied with electron radiation, X-ray radiation and synchrotron radiation in accordance with different procedures, analyzed and taken into account for the determination of the silicon density. The unexpectedly high metallic contamination of the sphere surfaces with copper and nickel silicides which occurred during the polishing process was measured, and its influence on the results of the sphere volume and of the sphere mass was assessed. This resulted in a higher measurement uncertainty.
What was decisive for the success achieved -- i.e. a relative overall measurement uncertainty of 3 · 10-8 -- was the development of a new mass-spectrometric method for the determination of the molar mass at PTB.
The result is a milestone on the way towards a successful realization of the new kilogram definition on the basis of fundamental constants whose values have been fixed. At present, the agreement of this value with other realizations of the kilogram is not good enough to change the existing definition of the mass unit. The present state of the Avogadro project is, however, so promising that -- on the basis of new measurements with improved sphere interferometers -- the measurement uncertainty of 2 · 10-8 demanded by the Consultative Committee for the Mass (CCM) will in the near future be achieved on contamination-free spheres and will probably even be undercut.

Ever wonder why a woman feels happier when she get's a new handbag? No, I didn't want a new handbag, I personally will vouch that I will not pay £300 pounds for a new woman's handbag with every friday's pay packet, perhaps every once per month, I think that a woman should be a space woman, you know what I mean gentlemen, I mean, what is £300 quid in space... Lol...

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''The combination of friction loads,

inertia loads, brake torque loads, air

loads, and gyroscopic loads resulting

from the wheels rotating at a peripheral

speed equal to 1.23 VSR (with the wingflaps

in takeoff position at design takeoff

weight), occurring during retraction and

extension at any airspeed up to 1.5 VSR1

(with the wing-flaps in the approach

position at design landing weight), and

(iii) Any load factor up to those

specified in § 25.345(a) for the wingflaps

extended condition''.

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Mike Gilbert Named AIAA National Engineer of the Year

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Energy was there from the beginning. You don't get to build a rocket often, even in NASA, and Mike Gilbert was excited about it.

Click to enlarge
Mike Gilbert at his desk.
Credit: NASA/Sean Smith
Energy was there at the end, when Max Launch Abort System flew from Wallops Island last July 8 with Gilbert in the control room.

Possibilities are still being considered for uses of the MLAS data collected that day. Its impact could end up outside NASA, given the shift toward commercial space launch capabilities now encouraged by the agency.

"With NESC here at Langley, and others at the center who understand escape systems, we feel like Langley might be able to leverage that to help the commercial folks figure out how to do an escape system that works for them," said Gilbert, whose performance as chief engineer for the MLAS project has been rewarded by his being named American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) National Engineer of the Year Award.

In the 103 weeks between planning and July 8 launch of MLAS, energy came from everywhere. Particularly, it came from young engineers called "residents" who were brought to the MLAS program as apprentices and given important work on the project.

"The resident engineers had a lot of energy," said Gilbert. "They really wanted to 'go do,' and sometimes steering them a little bit was really important."

The resident engineers, drawn from six NASA centers, had 5-10 years of experience each. With MLAS, they were tasked with building the vehicle's data instrumentation system.
The launch and flight of the Max Launch Abort System.

"They made a very significant contribution to this activity," Gilbert said. "They had to go from design to procurement to bench tests, integration to checkout to getting the flight data post-processed and boiled down to the engineering data that we were interested in seeing."

Perhaps as important, they set an example.

"Their energy infected the whole project," Gilbert said. "It helped keep some of the senior engineers who have been around for a while motivated to keep up. Sometimes the residents got out ahead of us."

The young engineers presented an interesting balance to a project that had them at one end of the experience continuum and veterans of the Apollo program at the other. In between were engineers from the NASA Engineering and Safety Center.

"I've never seen a project or been involved with a project that had that level of variation in experience and age and maturity," Gilbert said. "Everybody benefited from it, really."

The Apollo veterans asked questions stemming from history, the resident engineers asked questions stemming from inexperience. The NESC engineers had to hustle to answer the questions.

Gilbert's job was to "focus on the engineering aspects of the technical issue that was facing us," he said. "We had two great project managers in Ralph (Roe, NESC head) and Tim (Wilson, NESC deputy) to work the management issues."

Gilbert concentrated on questions such as what kind of design would get the required results? What were those desired results? What was the risk? How do you manage that risk?

His job also was to see that systems throughout the rocket were integrated, "making sure that something that was done in one area wasn't going to mess up something done in another area," Gilbert said.

As MLAS went together, there were inevitable problems. One kept Gilbert on the road for more than a month and required reintegration of much of MLAS.

"Another thing in my job as the chief engineer, and in the end it was the biggest thing, and that was to troubleshoot technical issues as they came up," said Gilbert. "It was to get the test vehicle built correctly.

Along the way there was an "eyes on the prize" mentality. Many NASA projects are so long term that people who start them aren't around to finish them.

MLAS was different. That was both its difficulty and its reward.

"Those opportunities are infrequent, but being there at the start of the planning and working it all the way through to the flight test and then working out the post-flight data analysis was very rewarding," Gilbert said. "You live for those kinds of experiences."

Before dawn on July 8, in the control room at Wallops Island, Gilbert and Wilson chatted, seemingly calm. There had been rehearsal after rehearsal and what was left was up to MLAS.

At launch, the calm went away and telemetrics ticked off benchmarks of the flight. "We cheered," Gilbert said. "Then a couple of seconds later, we cheered again ... and then again five seconds later."

And on it went through the 57-second flight. A perfect ending to 103 weeks of work.

Nine parachutes that brought MLAS down and into the Atlantic Ocean, triggered by 16 pyrotechnic events, signaled the success in a spectacular way.

"That the vehicle flew as we predicted and intended is probably the biggest success," Gilbert said. "It went in the direction we pointed it, went as high as we wanted it to, a little higher, actually, but well within the bounds of what we expected the vehicle to do."

Jim Hodges
The Researcher News
NASA Langley Research Center

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My reservations about latter 20th century engineering principles probably tell of my desire to build multi dimensional travelling space vehicles, these principles that I am showing I have been working on for nearly nine years, I call it F.A.T technology which is ''frequency alignment technology''. The fundamentals of the engineering practice were originally base string theory mathematics that I practice as a hobby. Flow destination will be the module for the next, perhaps 1000 years, I believe this is the best way to approach perimeter exploration and designation mapping.

At previous postings I have spoken about the necessity to evaluate the strengths of materials for building space vehicles, this is some of the theory...
Energy gathering pressure acts and reacts according to element base, element structure really is the fundamental principle of F.A.T technology for it to work in multi environments across multi dimensions, as is shown previously gas emittance from cows gives a pascal reading stability to a multi frame aero spacial, as sound disappears in an envelope the folding of space time become apparent with frequency alignment techniques based upon the age and structure of the mass.

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Previously I have spoken about the need for the American government to spend significantly on the 'magnetic beaming' for engine maneuvering primarily because I believe it is the next logical step in the evolution of engineering for our race travel vehicles, Chinese have shown a public audience that the principles are very probable employers of engineering ability for space vehicles. It would be terrific if NASA direction became stability of magnetic beaming era technology. I though still pursue my space ship that I have been envisioning and building since I was crawling around my bedroom.

The frequency alignment technology is mapping stepping stone phenomenon.

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Alignment of energy measurements of mass present multi directional time travel.

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The medical exploration results certainly show the potential.

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How Much Dark Matter Do Some Galaxies Need? 300 Billion Suns

16th february 2011

Creating stars is a lot like cooking: You need the right ingredients in the proper proportions to make everything shine. One of those ingredients is dark matter, and a new study has pinpointed the lower limit of this elusive substance needed to ignite a frenzy of star formation: a mass equal to 300 billion of our suns.
Dark matter is an invisible substance that astronomers can measure only indirectly by its gravitational influence over regular, visible matter. But while it has yet to be directly observed, it's a vital ingredient for galaxies in the act of forming stars.
And if 300 billion solar masses' worth of dark matter sounds like a lot to start with, scientists say it is actually about 10 times less than the amount previously estimated.

"If you start with too little dark matter, then a developing galaxy would peter out," said the study's leader, Asantha Cooray of the University of California, Irvine, in a statement. "If you have too much, then gas doesn't cool efficiently to form one large galaxy, and you end up with lots of smaller galaxies. But if you have the just the right amount of dark matter, then a galaxy bursting with stars will pop out."
The findings require a re-examination of current galaxy formation and evolution models, researchers said. Astronomers previously thought galaxies needed around 5,000 solar masses' worth of dark matter to kick-start star formation.

Cooray and his colleagues used the European Space Agency's infrared Herschel Space Observatory to measure the amount of dark matter needed for the birth of some of the first galaxies in the universe.
They measured light from massive, rapid-star-creating galaxies around 10 to 11 billion light-years from Earth, galaxies that astronomers suspect had formed inside egg-like halos of dark matter.
Galaxy characteristics like brightness and stellar mass are directly related to the size of their dark matter halo, the researchers said.
"Star formation is closely connected to dark matter," Cooray told
The scientists studied a patch of sky the size of Earth's moon in the constellation Ursa Major to make their discovery.
This wedge of sky, known as the Lockman Hole, is ideal for studying objects outside our galaxy because of the low dust contamination from the Milky Way.
The study's findings are detailed in today's (Feb. 16) online edition of the journal Nature and will appear in print Feb. 24.
Active galaxies show the way
Star formation is especially high within so-called submillimeter galaxies, which are some of the most active stellar cradles in the 13.7-billion-year-old universe. (The galaxies get their name from the emissions we detect from them as they rapidly move away from Earth. The wavelength of the emissions is less than a millimeter long.) In these old, bright galaxies, new stars are created at the rate of up to a few thousand per year. By comparison, the Milky Way produces about 10 stars annually.
"These are the galaxies that formed when the universe was about 2 or 3 billion years old," Cooray said.
After measuring the brightness of the galaxies within the patch of sky, the researcher calculated the minimum dark halo mass needed to develop and sustain a submillimeter galaxy when the universe's star formation was at its peak.
That number, 300 billion solar masses, is substantially less than previous estimates.
"There could be many reasons for this," Cooray said. For example, "it could be that there are more galaxies in the universe actively undergoing star formation than assumed by current simulations."
Or it could be something else entirely.
Whatever the cause, the link between halo mass and star formation will require another look at current theoretical models for these ancient star-forming galaxies, as well as galaxy formation and evolution as a whole, researchers said.

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Hydrogels Used to Make Precise New Sensor

(Feb. 9, 2011) — Researchers are developing a new type of biological and chemical sensor that has few moving parts, is low-cost and yet highly sensitive, sturdy and long-lasting.

The "diffraction-based" sensors are made of thin stripes of a gelatinous material called a hydrogel, which expands and contracts depending on the acidity of its environment.
Recent research findings have demonstrated that the sensor can be used to precisely determine pH -- a measure of how acidic or basic a liquid is -- revealing information about substances in liquid environments, said Cagri Savran (pronounced Chary Savran), an associate professor of mechanical engineering at Purdue University.
The sensor's simple design could make it more practical than other sensors in development, he said.
"Many sensors being developed today are brilliantly designed but are too expensive to produce, require highly skilled operators and are not robust enough to be practical," said Savran, whose work is based at Purdue's Birck Nanotechnology Center in the university's Discovery Park.
New findings show the technology is highly sensitive and might be used in chemical and biological applications including environmental monitoring in waterways and glucose monitoring in blood.
"As with any novel platform, more development is needed, but the detection principle behind this technology is so simple that it wouldn't be difficult to commercialize," said Savran, who is collaborating with another team of researchers led by Babak Ziaie, a Purdue professor of electrical and computer engineering and biomedical engineering.
Findings are detailed in a paper presented during the IEEE Sensors 2010 Conference in November and also published in the conference proceedings. The paper was written by postdoctoral researcher Chun-Li Chang, doctoral student Zhenwen Ding, Ziaie and Savran.
The flexible, water-insoluble hydrogel is formed into a series of raised stripes called a "diffraction grating," which is coated with gold on both the stripe surfaces and the spaces in between. The stripes expand and contract depending on the pH level of the environment.
Researchers in Ziaie's lab fabricated the hydrogel, while Savran's group led work in the design, development and testing of the diffraction-based sensor.
The sensors work by analyzing laser light reflecting off the gold coatings. Reflections from the stripes and spaces in between interfere with each other, creating a "diffraction pattern" that differs depending on the height of the stripes.
These diffraction patterns indicate minute changes in the movement of the hydrogel stripes in response to the environment, in effect measuring changes in pH.
"By precise measurement of pH, the diffraction patterns can reveal a lot of information about the sample environment," said Savran, who by courtesy is an associate professor of biomedical engineering and electrical and computer engineering. "This technology detects very small changes in the swelling of the diffraction grating, which makes them very sensitive."
The pH of a liquid is recorded on a scale from 0 to 14, with 0 being the most acidic and 14 the most basic. Findings showed the device's high sensitivity enables it to resolve changes smaller than one-1,000th on the pH scale, measuring swelling of only a few nanometers. A nanometer is about 50,000 times smaller than the finest sand grain.
"We know we can make them even more sensitive," Savran said. "By using different hydrogels, gratings responsive to stimuli other than pH can also be fabricated."
The work is ongoing.
"It's a good example of collaborations that can blossom when labs focusing on different research are located next to each other," Savran said. "Professor Ziaie's lab was already working with hydrogels, and my group was working on diffraction-based sensors. Hearing about the hydrogels work next door, one of my postdoctoral researchers, Chun-Li Chang thought of making a reflective diffraction grating out of hydrogels."
The Office of Technology Commercialization of the Purdue Research Foundation has filed for U.S. patent protection on the concept.

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Atom-Thick Sheets Unlock Future Technologies

(Feb. 8, 2011) — A new way of splitting layered materials, similar to graphite, into sheets of material just one atom thick could lead to revolutionary new electronic and energy storage technologies.

An international team, led by Oxford University and Trinity College Dublin scientists, has invented a versatile method for creating these one-atom thick 'nanosheets' from a range of materials using mild ultrasonic pulses, like those generated by jewellery cleaning devices, and common solvents. The new method is simple, fast, and inexpensive, and could be scaled up to work on an industrial scale.
The team publish a report of the research in this week's Science.
Each one-millimetre-thick layer of graphite is made up of around three million layers of graphene -- a flat sheet of carbon one atom thick -- stacked one on top of the other.
'Because of its extraordinary electronic properties graphene has been getting all the attention, including a recent Nobel Prize, as physicists hope that it might, one day, compete with silicon in electronics,' said Dr Valeria Nicolosi of Oxford University's Department of Materials, who led the research with Professor Jonathan Coleman of Trinity College Dublin. 'But in fact there are hundreds of other layered materials that could enable us to create powerful new technologies.'
Professor Coleman, of Trinity College Dublin, said: 'These novel materials have chemical and electronic properties which are well suited for applications in new electronic devices, super-strong composite materials and energy generation and storage. In particular, this research represents a major breakthrough towards the development of efficient thermoelectric materials.'
There are over 150 of these exotic layered materials -- such as Boron Nitride, Molybdenum disulfide, and Tungsten disulfide -- that have the potential to be metallic, semi-metallic or semiconducting depending on their chemical composition and how their atoms are arranged.
For decades researchers have tried to create nanosheets of these kind of materials as arranging them in atom-thick layers would enable us to unlock their unusual electronic and thermoelectric properties. However, all previous methods were extremely time consuming and laborious and the resulting materials were fragile and unsuited to most applications.
'Our new method offers low-costs, a very high yield and a very large throughput: within a couple of hours, and with just 1 mg of material, billions and billions of one-atom-thick graphene-like nanosheets can be made at the same time from a wide variety of exotic layered materials,' said Dr Nicolosi.
Nanosheets created using this method can be sprayed onto the surface of other materials, such as silicon, to produce 'hybrid films' which, potentially, enable their exotic abilities to be integrated with conventional technologies. Such films could be used to construct, among other things, new designs of computing devices, sensors or batteries.
The work was conducted by a team including scientists from Oxford University, Trinity College Dublin, Imperial College London, Korea University, and Texas A&M University (USA).

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Behavioral Problems Linked to Cortisol Levels: Study Finds Intervention Needed as Soon as Behavioral Problems Appear

(Feb. 10, 2011) — Cortisol, the so-called stress hormone, seems to behave in contradictory ways in children. Some youngsters with behavioral problems have abnormally high levels of cortisol, while others with identical problems have abnormally low levels. What's going on?

Researchers at Concordia University and the Centre for Research in Human Development may have resolved the cortisol paradox. In a groundbreaking study published in the journal Hormones and Behavior, they link cortisol levels not simply to behavior problems, but to the length of time individuals have experienced behavior problems.
"We studied the relationship between cortisol levels in young people with problematic behaviour such as aggression or depression, and the length of time since the onset of these behaviours," explains Paula Ruttle, lead author and PhD candidate at Concordia's Department of Psychology. "Cortisol levels were abnormally high around the time problem behaviours began, but abnormally low when they had been present for a long time."
To obtain subjects' cortisol levels, researchers analyzed saliva samples taken from 96 young people during early adolescence. They then matched cortisol levels to behavioral assessments taken in childhood and again during adolescence. Problem behaviours were classified as either "internalizing" (depression and anxiety) or "externalizing" (aggression, attentional problems).
Riding the cortisol roller coaster
Youngsters who developed depression-like symptoms or anxiety problems in adolescence had high levels of cortisol. However, those who developed symptoms earlier had abnormally low cortisol levels. The conclusion? Cortisol levels go up when individuals are first stressed by depression or anxiety, but then decline again if they experience stress for an extended period.
"It seems the body adapts to long-term stress, such as depression, by blunting its normal response," says coauthor Lisa Serbin, a psychology professor who is Ruttle's PhD supervisor and Concordia University Research Chair in Human Development.
"To take an extreme example, if someone sees a bear in the yard, that person experiences a 'flight or fight' reaction," continues Serbin, a member of the Centre for Research in Human Development. "Stress levels and therefore cortisol levels go up. However, if the same person sees bears in the yard every day for a year, the stress response is blunted. Eventually, cortisol levels become abnormally low."
Aggressive behavior in early childhood
At first glance, study results from children with aggressive behavior and attentional problems seem to contradict this theory. In this group they found that low levels of cortisol were related to aggressive behavior both during childhood and adolescence. However, the authors contend that since aggressive behavior often begins in the second year of life or earlier, subjects may have been stressed for years before entering the study, resulting in abnormally low cortisol levels.
"This blunted response makes sense from a physiological point of view," says Ruttle. "In the short term, high levels of cortisol help the body respond to stress. However, in the long term, excessive levels of cortisol are linked to a range of physical and mental health problems. So, to protect itself, the body shuts down the cortisol system -- but research shows that's not good either."
What, me worry?
Individuals with a blunted response to stress may not respond to things that would -- and should -- make other people nervous. For example, children with long-term behaviour problems perform poorly in school. Because of their blunted stress response, these youngsters may not be worried about exams, so they don't bother to prepare as much as their peers.
The study has many significant implications, according to Serbin. "This research suggests interventions should begin as soon as a behavioural problem appears," she says. "For children with severe externalizing problems, this may be very early, perhaps even when they are preschoolers or toddlers.
"We now have evidence that behavioural problems in children are linked to mental and physical health. Taking a 'wait-and-see' attitude may not be the right approach."
This research was funded by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research.

I'm not going to give materials or stats on this journal, some of my friends have some of the stats that I've looked at for different constellations, so, I guess we''ll keep doing the sums while getting the funding...

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