This posting is the first chance I have had to write some science and research for a while, most people were really busy in December and hopefully they were ok with the short posts I could scramble together while at work. I'm going back out to work again soon, so, hopefully I can get some good science done while at the office. Building my company profile for astroarchitecture isn't easy, particularly if it's going to be known I'm the best in the business and people have faith in my abilty to perform at the highest levels and lead teams of reletively standard trained operatives into an unknown field. I've got some photographs of me recently [this previous monday] for reference, as we all know that the weather really changes people appearance when they have been out into the feild, but, I show my ability to resume my usual appearance, but, obviously my new appearance is an indication of my Recent Noah's ark exploits.
me and noah picture]
I have just drank a couple of litres of cider so my eyes are a bit glazed, it's the first alchohol I have had for more than a year!!!
me drank some cider]
Prestige amusements picture]
top residential picture]
Sing a song of sixpence lyrics
(Four and twenty blackbirds baked in a pie)
Sing a song of sixpence a pocket full of rye,
Four and twenty blackbirds baked in a pie.
When the pie was opened the birds began to sing,
Oh wasn't that a dainty dish to set before the king?
The king was in his counting house counting out his money,
The queen was in the parlour eating bread and honey
The maid was in the garden hanging out the clothes,
When down came a blackbird and pecked off her nose!
Russia and India sign agreement giving India access to GLONASS
Dec 23, 2010 02:35 pm
India and Russia on Tuesday signed an agreement to share high-precision signals from the Global Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS) for defence as well as civilian use. The agreement was signed on the sidelines of the Russian President Dmitry Medvedev's Indian visit.
As per the agreement, Russia will provide access to the GLONASS high-precision navigation signals to India. Russia currently has a total of 26 GLONASS satellites in orbit, of which 23 are operational. GLONASS is the Russian equivalent of the United States' global positioning system that allows users to determine a near precise position of any object to within metres.
Notably, in March this year, the Russian Federal Space Agency Roscosmos, the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) and Russian Navigation Information Systems (NIS) GLONASS signed a 'Memorandum of Cooperation'. Later, representatives from NIS-GLONASS and ISRO's commercial arm, Antrix Corporation, agreed to set up a joint venture providing navigation and information services on the GLONASS/GPS platform.
my dictionaries picture]
It is terrific that countries acknowledge the neccessities for the spread of good will and trust among modern intelligence infrastructure building, it is vital that the public community has the knoweldge that we vote for governments that correctly employ counter distrust measures and that they are regularly seen to be administering for the virtue of community unity. Obviously for many of us countless laws loiter in offices and on desks waiting to be signed, considered and solicited, working with government officials that do everything possible to show that procedure is as it should be shouldn't be a relief, it should be standard, but, many of us who have billions of pounds stuck in ancient cob webs welcome newer members to the political community with honest and genuine hope for our future.
my research office room]
Your Genome in Minutes: New Technology Could Slash Sequencing Time
(Dec. 31, 2010) - Scientists from Imperial College London are developing technology that could ultimately sequence a person's genome in mere minutes, at a fraction of the cost of current commercial techniques.
The researchers have patented an early prototype technology that they believe could lead to an ultrafast commercial DNA sequencing tool within ten years. Their work is described in a study published this month in the journal Nano Letters.
The research suggests that scientists could eventually sequence an entire genome in a single lab procedure, whereas at present it can only be sequenced after being broken into pieces in a highly complex and time-consuming process. Fast and inexpensive genome sequencing could allow ordinary people to unlock the secrets of their own DNA, revealing their personal susceptibility to diseases such as Alzheimer's, diabetes and cancer. Medical professionals are already using genome sequencing to understand population-wide health issues and research ways to tailor individualised treatments or preventions.
Dr Joshua Edel, one of the authors on the study from the Department of Chemistry at Imperial College London, said: "Compared with current technology, this device could lead to much cheaper sequencing: just a few dollars, compared with $1m to sequence an entire genome in 2007. We haven't tried it on a whole genome yet but our initial experiments suggest that you could theoretically do a complete scan of the 3,165 million bases in the human genome within minutes, providing huge benefits for medical tests, or DNA profiles for police and security work. It should be significantly faster and more reliable, and would be easy to scale up to create a device with the capacity to read up to 10 million bases per second, versus the typical 10 bases per second you get with the present day single molecule real-time techniques."
In the new study, the researchers demonstrated that it is possible to propel a DNA strand at high speed through a tiny 50 nanometre (nm) hole -- or nanopore -- cut in a silicon chip, using an electrical charge. As the strand emerges from the back of the chip, its coding sequence (bases A, C, T or G) is read by a 'tunnelling electrode junction'. This 2 nm gap between two wires supports an electrical current that interacts with the distinct electrical signal from each base code. A powerful computer can then interpret the base code's signal to construct the genome sequence, making it possible to combine all these well-documented techniques for the first time.
Sequencing using nanopores has long been considered the next big development for DNA technology, thanks to its potential for high speed and high-capacity sequencing. However, designs for an accurate and fast reader have not been demonstrated until now.
Co-author Dr Emanuele Instuli, from the Department of Chemistry at Imperial College London, explained the challenges they faced in this research: "Getting the DNA strand through the nanopore is a bit like sucking up spaghetti. Until now it has been difficult to precisely align the junction and the nanopore. Furthermore, engineering the electrode wires with such dimensions approaches the atomic scale and is effectively at the limit of existing instrumentation. However in this experiment we were able to make two tiny platinum wires into an electrode junction with a gap sufficiently small to allow the electron current to flow between them."
This technology would have several distinct advantages over current techniques, according to co-author, Aleksandar Ivanov from the Department of Chemistry at Imperial College London: "Nanopore sequencing would be a fast, simple procedure, unlike available commercial methods, which require time-consuming and destructive chemical processes to break down and replicate small sections of the DNA molecules to determine their sequence. Additionally, these silicon chips are incredibly durable compared with some of the more delicate materials currently used. They can be handled, washed and reused many times over without degrading their performance."
Dr Tim Albrecht, another author on the study, from the Department of Chemistry at Imperial College London, says: "The next step will be to differentiate between different DNA samples and, ultimately, between individual bases within the DNA strand (ie true sequencing). I think we know the way forward, but it is a challenging project and we have to make many more incremental steps before our vision can be realised."
This work was supported by the Wellcome Trust Translational Award and the Corrigan Foundation.
Jamexican food picture]
Jamexicans obviously have been around north America a lot longer than American europeans, I imagine that the approach to thermo biology in the region of aries pleaides would really suit the Jamexican blend of peoples, of course, the arawak indians being settlers among the same region of the antillian islands and the mainland of north and south america would be indications of medium nuclaic properties, it would be terrific to work with the new space agency people that will obviously become members of the space business from Mexico, for Jamaica to work with the mexican space agency on thermo neuclear dynamics of space vehicles it would be terrifically exciting to learn more about the cutta condition of those regions of air space, hopefully they do not follow suit with those recent dreadful laws of drone flying airspace that the north american government has decided on using.
Sean Paul is himself a Jamexican...
Sean Paul / Temperature...
US astronaut promotes Mexican space agency
Mexico City (AFP) Sept 12, 2008
A US astronaut of Mexican origin, part of the crew for an Atlantis Space Shuttle voyage in July 2009, presented a project for a Mexican space agency to senators here Friday.
Astronaut Jose Hernandez promoted the plan, including a launch base in the Yucatan Peninsula on the Atlantic Coast, approved by the lower house in 2007 and due to be voted on by the senate before the end of the month. If approved, the agency will begin operations in March next year. "The idea is to copy what has been done in the 43 countries with space bases, modelled on NASA, but on a much smaller scale," Fernando de la Pena, one of the researchers behind the project, said on television Friday. The Mexican space agency will be known as AEXA and include an underwater base. Hernandez, whose family emigrated to the United States to work in agriculture, qualified as an engineer before joining the Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas.
mexican space ageny emblem]
Do Our Bodies' Bacteria Play Matchmaker?
(Dec. 3, 2010) - Could the bacteria that we carry in our bodies decide who we marry? According to a new study from Tel Aviv University, the answer lies in the gut of a small fruit fly.
Prof. Eugene Rosenberg, Prof. Daniel Segel and doctoral student Gil Sharon of Tel Aviv University's Department of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology recently demonstrated that the symbiotic bacteria inside a fruit fly greatly influence its choice of mates.
The research was done in cooperation with Prof. John Ringo of the University of Maine, and was recently published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS).
Love, marriage and fruit flies
Based on a theory developed by Prof. Rosenberg and Dr. Ilana Zilber-Rosenberg, the scientists propose that the basic unit of natural selection is not the individual living organism, plant or animal, but rather a larger biological milieu called a holobiont. This milieu can include plant or animal life as well as their symbiotic partners. In the case of animals, these partners tend to be microorganisms like intestinal bacteria.
"Up to now, it was assumed that the host organism undergoes evolution on its own, while its symbiotic bacteria undergo their own evolution," Prof. Rosenberg says. "The mechanism that we discovered enables evolution to occur more rapidly in response to environmental changes. Since a generation is shorter for bacteria than for multicellular organisms, they genetically adjust more quickly to changes in the holobiont," says Prof. Rosenberg.
Conducting their experiments on the rapidly-reproducing fruit fly, the scientists were able to test this new theory. The first experiment repeated a study carried out two decades ago by a Yale University researcher, in which a fly population was divided in half and fed different diets -- malt sugar versus starch. A year later, when the flies were re-integrated as one group, those who had been fed starch preferred starch-fed mates, while the sugar-fed flies preferred mates of a similar nutritional background. The repeat experiment carried out by the Tel Aviv University researchers shows that this dietary influence takes effect within just a generation or two rather than over an entire year.
In their second experiment, the Tel Aviv University team repeated the first, but with the addition of an antibiotic, which killed the bacteria and eliminated the specific mate preference. The mating process became random, with no dietary influence.
In subsequent experiments, the researchers successfully isolated the bacterial species responsible for reproductive isolation in flies with diet-related mating preferences, and found the bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum to be present in greater numbers in starch-fed fruit flies than in sugar-fed flies. When L. plantarum was reintroduced into the antibiotic-treated flies, the preferential mating behavior resumed -- proving that this bacterial species is at least partly responsible for the mating preference.
Finally, in cooperation with Prof. Avraham Hefetz of Tel Aviv University's Department of Zoology, the team analyzed the sexual pheromones produced by the fruit flies. There turned out to be differences in pheromone levels between the two groups of flies -- differences that again disappeared after administering antibiotics.
"The finding indicates that pheromone alterations are a mechanism by which we can identify mating preferences. We therefore hypothesize that it is the bacteria that are driving this change," Prof. Rosenberg says. He adds that these discoveries have implications for our entire understanding of natural selection -- something which may even lead to the development of a new theory of evolution.
picture of me]
picture of me more like my usual self but still looking groggy and dishevelled from anti biotics and the flesh wound in my leg]
MORAFE-Lekwalo to metswako
(Nov. 26, 2010) - By discovering the first double star where a pulsating Cepheid variable and another star pass in front of one another, an international team of astronomers has solved a decades-old mystery. The rare alignment of the orbits of the two stars in the double star system has allowed a measurement of the Cepheid mass with unprecedented accuracy. The new result shows that the prediction from stellar pulsation theory is spot on, while the prediction from stellar evolution theory is at odds with the new observations.
The new results, from a team led by Grzegorz Pietrzyński (Universidad de Concepción, Chile, Obserwatorium Astronomiczne Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego, Poland), appear in the Nov. 25, 2010 edition of the journal Nature.
Grzegorz Pietrzyński introduces this remarkable result: "By using the HARPS instrument on the 3.6-metre telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile, along with other telescopes, we have measured the mass of a Cepheid with an accuracy far greater than any earlier estimates. This new result allows us to immediately see which of the two competing theories predicting the masses of Cepheids is correct."
Classical Cepheid Variables, usually called just Cepheids, are unstable stars that are larger and much brighter than the Sun . They expand and contract in a regular way, taking anything from a few days to months to complete the cycle. The time taken to brighten and grow fainter again is longer for stars that are more luminous and shorter for the dimmer ones. This remarkably precise relationship makes the study of Cepheids one of the most effective ways to measure the distances to nearby galaxies and from there to map out the scale of the whole Universe .
Unfortunately, despite their importance, Cepheids are not fully understood. Predictions of their masses derived from the theory of pulsating stars are 20% less than predictions from the theory of the evolution of stars. This embarrassing discrepancy has been known since the 1960s.
To resolve this mystery, astronomers needed to find a double star containing a Cepheid where the orbit happened to be seen edge-on from Earth. In these cases, known as eclipsing binaries, the brightness of the two stars dims as one component passes in front of the other, and again when it passes behind the other star. In such pairs astronomers can determine the masses of the stars to high accuracy . Unfortunately neither Cepheids nor eclipsing binaries are common, so the chance of finding such an unusual pair seemed very low. None are known in the Milky Way.
Wolfgang Gieren, another member of the team, takes up the story: "Very recently we actually found the double star system we had hoped for among the stars of the Large Magellanic Cloud. It contains a Cepheid variable star pulsating every 3.8 days. The other star is slightly bigger and cooler, and the two stars orbit each other in 310 days. The true binary nature of the object was immediately confirmed when we observed it with the HARPS spectrograph on La Silla."
The observers carefully measured the brightness variations of this rare object, known as OGLE-LMC-CEP0227 , as the two stars orbited and passed in front of one another. They also used HARPS and other spectrographs to measure the motions of the stars towards and away from the Earth -- both the orbital motion of both stars and the in-and-out motion of the surface of the Cepheid as it swelled and contracted.
This very complete and detailed data allowed the observers to determine the orbital motion, sizes and masses of the two stars with very high accuracy -- far surpassing what had been done before for a Cepheid. The mass of the Cepheid is now known to about 1% and agrees exactly with predictions from the theory of stellar pulsation. However, the larger mass predicted by stellar evolution theory was shown to be significantly in error.
The much-improved mass estimate is only one outcome of this work, and the team hopes to find other examples of these remarkably useful pairs of stars to exploit the method further. They also believe that from such binary systems they will eventually be able to pin down the distance to the Large Magellanic Cloud to 1%, which would mean an extremely important improvement of the cosmic distance scale.
 The first Cepheid variables were spotted in the 18th century and the brightest ones can easily be seen to vary from night to night with the unaided eye. They take their name from the star Delta Cephei in the constellation of Cepheus (the King), which was first seen to vary by John Goodricke in England in 1784. Remarkably, Goodricke was also the first to explain the light variations of another kind of variable star, eclipsing binaries. In this case two stars are in orbit around each other and pass in front of each other for part of their orbits and so the total brightness of the pair drops. The very rare object studied by the current team is both a Cepheid and an eclipsing binary. Classical Cepheids are massive stars, distinct from similar pulsating stars of lower mass that do not share the same evolutionary history.
 The period luminosity relation for Cepheids, discovered by Henrietta Leavitt in 1908, was used by Edwin Hubble to make the first estimates of the distance to what we now know to be galaxies. More recently Cepheids have been observed with the Hubble Space Telescope and with the ESO VLT on Paranal to make highly accurate distance estimates to many nearby galaxies.
 In particular, astronomers can determine the masses of the stars to high accuracy if both stars happen to have a similar brightness and therefore the spectral lines belonging to each of the two stars can be seen in the observed spectrum of the two stars together, as is the case for this object. This allows the accurate measurement of the motions of both stars towards and away from Earth as they orbit, using the Doppler effect.
 The name OGLE-LMC-CEP0227 arises because the star was first discovered to be a variable during the OGLE search for gravitational microlensing. More details about OGLE are available at: http://ogle.astrouw.edu.pl/.
As people who believe that we are formed from stars, stars from us, the human body produces more than 1 ton of flaking skin per year it would be true to say that NASA's primary search for amino acids from the production of methane, of planetoids would be an agreeable space programme to build and base monetary decision policies on, yes, people do want to search for our origins, they want to search for life that could possibly exist that we could ackknowledge with these 3' dimensional goggles that we wear. But, what is the difference between skin from a mans forskin penis and skin from a the inside of a mans mouth?
Do 'Traffic Lights' in the Brain Direct Our Actions? Delayed Inhibition Between Neurons Identified as Possible Basis for Decision Making
The traffic light changes from green to orange -- should I push down the accelerator a little bit further or rather hit the brakes? Our daily lives present a long series of decisions we have to make, and sometimes we only have a split second at our disposal. Often the problem of decision-making entails the selection of one set of brain processes over multiple others seeking access to same resources. Several mechanisms have been suggested how the brain might solve this problem. However, up to now, it is a mystery what exactly happens when during a rapid choice between two options.
In the current issue of the Journal of Neuroscience, Jens Kremkow, Arvind Kumar, and Ad Aertsen from the Bernstein Center Freiburg propose a mechanism how the brain can choose between possible actions -- already at the level of single nerve cells.
As the structure and activity of the brain are just too complex to answer this question through a simple biological experiment, the scientists constructed a network of neurons in the computer. An important aspect of the model in this context is the property of nerve cells to influence the activity of other nerve cells, either in an excitatory or inhibitory manner. In the constructed network, two groups of neurons acted as the senders of two different signals. Further downstream in the network, another group of neurons, the "gate" neurons, were to control which of the signals would be transmitted onward.
As the cells within the network were connected both with exciting and inhibiting neurons, the signals reached the gate as excitatory and, after a short delay, inhibitory activity. In their simulations, the scientists found that the key for the gate neurons' "decision" in favour of one signal over the other was the time delay of the inhibitory signal relative to the excitatory signal. If the delay was set to be very small, the activity of the cells in the gate was quenched too quickly for the signal to be propagated.
Conversely, a larger delay caused the gate to open for the signal. Results from neurophysiological experiments have already shown that a change in delay properties is possible in real neurons. These findings therefore support the hypothesis of Kremkow and colleagues that such temporal gating can form the basis for selecting one of several alternative options in our brain.
blonde dog woman picture]
In the chain of command, it is vital to have equilibrium of rank.
(Nov. 22, 2010) - Jump ropes are used by kids for fun and by athletes for training. But what about the underlying physics? How do jump ropes work? Can important engineering principles be studied?
Jeff Aristoff and Howard Stone of Princeton University have built themselves a robotic jump rope device that controls all the rope parameters -- rope rotation rate, rope density, diameter, length, and the distance between "hands." They capture the motion of the ropes by high-speed cameras, one to the side and one at the end. Then they compare the observed behavior with predictions made by their equations -- work they presented November 21 at the American Physical Society Division of Fluid Dynamics (DFD) meeting in Long Beach, CA.
"Our main discovery is how the air-induced drag affects the shape of the rope and the work necessary to rotate it," says Princeton researcher Jeff Aristoff. "Aerodynamic forces cause the rope to bend in such a way that the total drag is reduced." (Leaves do this too when they bend out of the wind.) This deflection or twisting is most important in the middle of the rope and the least at the ends. If the rope is too light it might not clear the body of the jumper.
"Implications for successful skipping will be discussed, and a demonstration is possible," said Aristoff about his presentation at the meeting. "Fluid dynamic effects on long flexible filaments occur in both engineered structures and many natural systems, so insights from the jump rope will hopefully inform other common situations," he added.
The world is a beautiful place when people know what their doing...
Marilyn Monroe picture]